Vol. 66, No. 2 (July 1997)
Rakesh Gupta, Editor
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Executive Committee - 1995-97
Nominations for the 1998 Bingham Medal
Guidelines for the Bingham award may be found here. Nominations should be submitted before January 16, 1998 to the next chair of the Bingham Award Committee, Professor Eric S.G. Shaqfeh, at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Phone: (415) 723-3764; Fax: (415) 723-9780 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
69th Annual Meeting
|Technical Program Chair||Robert L. Powell
Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
University of California at Davis
Davis, CA 95616
(916) 752-8779; Fax: (916) 752-1031
|Local Arrangements||Jacques L. Zakin, Chair
Kurt Koelling, Co-Chair
Department of Chemical Engineering
Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210
The Bingham Medal for 1997 will be awarded at the Columbus meeting of the Society to Professor Gerry Fuller of Stanford University. This award has been given in recognition of outstanding scientific contributions to the field of rheology, especially in the area of optical rheometry. A write-up appears below.
Gerald G. Fuller of Stanford University has been chosen to receive the 1997 Bingham Medal. Gerry has pioneered many experimental techniques in the area of optical rheometry. These include simple, inexpensive methods for high-speed, time-resolved simultaneous measurements of extinction angle and birefringence, with analogous methods for measuring light scattering, infrared dichroism and Raman scattering.
Gerry's group at Stanford has clearly demonstrated the power of the various optical techniques for understanding molecular orientation of a wide variety of complex fluids in flow fields. The complex fluids studied include linear polymer melts and solutions, gels, block copolymers, liquid crystal polymers, rod-like polymer solutions, polymer blends, emulsions, suspensions, and, most recently, Langmuir films. The flow fields include oscillatory shear, steady shear, and extensional flow. These rheo-optical techniques have been nicely summarized in Gerry's recent book entitled, Optical Rheometry. Two of these techniques have been developed into commercial rheometers. The Rheo-Optical Analyzer measures birefringence and conservative dichroism of fluids in a variety of linear and nonlinear shear flows. The Extensional Rheometer measures birefringence of low-viscosity fluids in an uniaxial extensional flow centered between fluid-withdrawing opposing jets.
The real strength of Gerry Fuller's work goes far beyond experimental technique development. It is Gerry's keen interest in the physics of complex fluids that has spawned these techniques. Examples of complex fluid physics where Gerry's group has recently furthered our understanding include the conformation of flexible polymers in flow, alignment of rod-like polymers in flow, the structure of liquid crystal defect texture, and the dynamics of miscible polymer blends. In each of these areas, Gerry chose particular rheo-optical methods aimed at testing specific ideas about how such materials should behave. In many cases, the experiments uncovered new aspects of complex fluid physics that had not been anticipated in advance. One example of this is the orientational coupling observed in blends of two polymers. When the fast component relaxes, one would expect the ensemble average of its segmental orientation to decay to zero. However, the fast component feels the presence of the unrelaxed slow component and, consequently, maintains some residual orientation that does not decay to zero till the slow component relaxes. This orientational coupling has been demonstrated unambiguously by selective deuterium labeling of one blend component and monitoring infrared-dichroism at the wavelength of the stretching vibration of a carbon-deuterium bond. Orientational coupling has been found to be quite universal, occurring in miscible polymer blends and networks.
By teaching all rheologists the power of optical probes in the study of the flow of complex fluids, Gerry has assured that his contributions will carry on to future generations. His students in academia and industry are further advancing this rapidly-growing branch of rheometry. Please be sure to join us in Columbus to celebrate Gerry's success.
R.H. Colby and J.A. Kornfield
Check out AIP's new WWW site for the history of Physics, Astronomy and Geophysics at http://www.aip.org/history/. Information is available on AIP's Niels Bohr Library and the Center for History of Physics. A featured Web exhibit is Einstein: Image and Impact, which uses photographs, quotes, and text to present highlights of Albert Einstein's life. Also featured is the Discovery of the Electron, 1997 being the centenary of J.J. Thompson's experiments leading to the discovery of the first fundamental subatomic particle.
Rheological Techniques by R.W. Whorlow, 2nd Edition (Ellis Horwood, 1992, 460pp., 79.95 sterling) is now out of print. The author has, however, been able to obtain some remaining copies and is able to offer them in the US at only 20 pounds sterling, including postage (surface mail) and packing if payment is in sterling or $40 by dollar check. Please send orders, with checks, to: Dr. R.W. Whorlow, 3 Pittville Crescent Lane, CHELTENHAM, Glos. GL52 2RA, United Kingdom.
A year ago I took the opportunity to reflect in these pages on the status of The Society of Rheology, and to consider possibly beneficial changes to its structure and to its direction. I closed, as is customary, with an invitation to the membership to express their views on the proposal made, and on any other topics of interest that had not been addressed. And, as is also customary, I believe, there was not a single response.
What conclusion should be drawn from the complete lack of response? I do not believe that it reflects indifference, or perhaps a sense of futility, that nothing worthwhile could be accomplished by expressing one's views. Certainly the often lively discussion at our business meetings counters that conclusion. More likely, then, it means that the membership is (reasonably) content with the state of The Society, and really does not want any great change.
And yet, changes have occurred over the years. For example, the Constitution under which we operate is version 3.0, the original dating back to 1929, subsequently "fully amended" in 1941 and 1947. And at present we have an ad hoc Committee considering other changes, including making the wording of the Constitution gender-neutral. More apparent in its effect on the membership was the assumption of the publication of the Journal, which has enabled us to maintain its quality and size without excessive financial burden on the members and on the library community. And, we plan to have the Journal available to subscribers on-line next year. And this Bulletin is also evolving, including not only news items, but also advertising and technical content.
If I'm permitted to draw an analogy from our field, it seems that the response of The Society of Rheology to calls for change is best characterized, fittingly enough, as that of a Bingham body. If the applied stress is small, SoR acts like an elastic body, with a strong desire to retain its unstressed configuration. However, if the external stress is sufficiently large (as was the financial and editorial situation which led to our publishing the Journal), SoR does change and adapt to the new circumstances.
There are always some external stresses - the uncertainty of what will happen in the field of technical publications is one that I addressed in my comments last year. However, we have a tremendous resource in a membership of dedicated volunteers that are ready to accept the tasks to maintain the successful operation of The Society. It has been a constant source of gratification that it has never been difficult to find members willing to serve on the various committees that do the actual work of The Society, and in fact that members offer their services without being asked. The resource to help us through any difficult times ahead is the essential financial reserve that has been built under the watchful guidance of our long-time Treasurer, Ed Collins, for whose contributions in all aspects of SoR's operations I cannot find words adequate to express my admiration and gratitude.
So, I am optimistic that as long as rheologists find interesting problems on which to work, The Society of Rheology will continue to offer them the opportunity to present their results in meetings with their colleagues and to publish them for the use of the entire community. It has been a privilege to have had the opportunity to try to repay a portion of the great benefits I have received from The Society throughout my career.
Arthur B. Metzner received the Distinguished Service Award from the Society of Rheology at the Galveston meeting of the Society in February. Given at the discretion of the Executive Committee of the Society, the Distinguished Service Award recognizes exceptional service to the Society and has been presented only three times in the past.
A graduate of the University of Alberta with a doctrate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Metzner has been a pioneer in the field of rheology. He served as editor of the Journal of Rheology till 1995, and under his guidance the stature and impact of the journal increased, making it the most prestigious rheology journal. He has provided leadership to the Society including, most recently, being the Society's representative to the International Committee on Rheology.
Metzner has received many awards and honors during his career, including the Bingham medal of the Society. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, one of the highest professional distinctions in the field. After 40 years of distinguished service, he retired from the University of Delaware in 1993 as the H. Fletcher Brown Professor of Chemical Engineering Emeritus.
Application forms for membership in The Society of Rheology can now be downloaded from the home page of the Society on the World Wide Web. The address is http://www.umecheme.maine.edu/sor/. Also available on the home page are abstracts of forthcoming papers in the Journal of Rheology and a listing of upcoming rheology meetings.
Giovanni Astarita, Professor of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Naples, Italy, and Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Delaware for many years, died in Naples on April 28 following a stroke on April 24. He was 63 years old.
Professor Astarita earned his master's degree in chemical engineering from University of Delaware as a student of Bob Pigford, one of the founding fathers of chemical engineering. He received his doctrate at University of Naples in 1957 and joined the Engineering Faculty there. He was a superb teacher who updated the chemical engineering curriculum at the University of Naples, imparting to it an international flavor that has since been maintained. He was a visiting professor at Delaware during the 1965-6 academic year and annually in the fall semesters continuously from 1973 through 1995. The fall semester of 1996 was spent at Johns Hopkins University.
Professor Astarita's 8 books and over 200 papers revealed him to be a full renaissance scholar as his work spanned the full range of rheological, continuum mechanics and chemical engineering interests: heat and mass transfer, applied mathematics, chemical reaction engineering, thermodynamics, processing of polymers and powders. His 1967 book on mass transfer with chemical reaction was perhaps the most lucid exposition of this subject yet available and served as a philosophical tract on how rigorous engineering analysis of all kinds should be carried out. This first book, and a later one on mechanics of non-linear fluids, were translated into Russian, and the tract "Gas Treating with Chemical Solvents," co- authored with D.W. Savage and A.L. Bisio, was translated into Chinese. This latter work has had a very significant impact on the recovery of natural gas world-wide.
Professor Astarita's broad scientific interests and numerous accomplishments were recognized in the US by awards rarely given to Europeans: the Alpha Chi Sigma award from the AIChE in 1992 and election as a foreign associate of the National Academy of Engineering in 1994. In Italy, he was long a member of the Naples Academy of Science, Letters and Arts, and in 1995 he received the gold medal for excellence in research from the Federation of Chemical Industries. In honor of his 60th birthday, Chemical Engineering Science published a special issue of the journal.
While Professor Astarita's primary loves were clearly for his family and his profession, he also enjoyed being near the water and was an avid boater, swimmer, diver, spear-fisherman, and spent much of his spare time in a small fishing village, San Marco, on the south coast of his hometown of Naples. He was also an intense bridge player who attained the rank of Master in the Italian Bridge Federation.
Surviving family members are his wife of 38 years, Nerina, his mother Carmen, and two sons. Luca, a resident of Naples, is following in his father's professional footsteps as a chemical and polymer engineer. Tommaso is a professor of history at Georgetown University in Washington, DC.
We mourn the loss of a long standing and esteemed renaissance scholar, colleague, and friend. We are left enriched by his presence among us.
His colleagues and former students
The Rheology Bulletin publishes papers on the applied aspects of Rheology which are intended for the non-specialist. (Archival research papers should be sent to the Journal of Rheology which is also published by the Society of Rheology.) Appropriate topics include the application of rheological principles to a specific system, instrumentation for rheological measurements, description of interesting rheological phenomena, and the use of well-established rheological techniques to characterize products, processes or phenomena. Papers that describe the historical aspects of the practice of rheology and how these may have influenced current trends are welcome. Also welcome are papers that address the present and changing status of rheological education including papers that describe recent or current innovation in the classroom or laboratory. Consultation with the Editor prior to manuscript submission is encouraged.
Papers should ordinarily not exceed about 4000 words in length. SI units should be used, but any standard style of writing may be employed. The article must have a clear message, and the significance of the work must be explicitly stated. Submit two copies of the manuscript at least three months prior to the issue in which publication is desired. The initial decision about suitability of publication will be made by the Editor. Both solicited and contributed papers may be sent to two or more reviewers. If the paper has been published previously in essentially the same form, permission for reprinting must have been obtained from the copyright holder.
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