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Rheology Bulletin

Vol. 68, No. 1 (January 1999)

Rakesh Gupta, Editor

[Rheology Bulletin Home Page][Recent Issues]


Executive Committee - 1997-99

President Ronald G. Larson
Vice President Gerald G. Fuller
Secretary Andrew M. Kraynik
Treasurer Montgomery T. Shaw
Editor Morton M. Denn
Past President Kurt F. Wissbrun
Members-at-Large Donald G. Baird
Paula Moldenaers

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W. E. VanArsdale, chair
M. E. Mackay
L. E. Wedgewood
C. C. White
S. J. Muller, chair
D. G. Baird
P. E. Clark
E. A. Collins
W. M. Prest
W. E. VanArsdale
R. Webber
Meetings Policy
R. G. Larson, chair
G. G. Fuller
A. J. Giacomin
A. M. Kraynik
R. L. Powell
Bingham Award
A. Chow, chair
G. C. Berry
D. F. James
A. J. McHugh
W. M. Prest, Jr.
R. C. Armstrong, chair
J. F. Brady
R. Secor

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Rheology Short Course

A two-day short course on Optical Rheometry will be offered in Madison, October 16-17, 1999. Course content includes an introduction to the physics of light propagation, optical methods, molecular models of optical properties, the design of optical experiments, and applications. The instructor is Professor G.G. Fuller of Stanford University. Additional details are available at the Society web site. A complete description and registration information will be included in the July 1999 issue of the Rheology Bulletin.

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71st Annual Meeting
Madison, WI
October 17 - 21, 1999

The 1999 annual meeting of The Society of Rheology will be held at the Monona Terrace Convention Center in Madison, Wisconsin. The meeting organizers are:

Technical Program Chairs
     Prof. Robert C. Armstrong
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue, MIT 66-350
Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
(617) 253-4581; Fax: (617) 258-8992
E-mail: rca@mit.edu
Prof. Daniel J. Klingenberg
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Wisconsin
1415 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1691
(608) 262-8932; Fax: (608) 262-5434
E-mail: klingen@engr.wisc.edu
Local Arrangement Chair
Prof. A. Jeffrey Giacomin
Chair, Rheology Research Center
University of Wisconsin
309 Mechanical Engineering Building
1513 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53706-1572
(608) 262-7473; Fax: (608) 265-2316
e-mail: giacomin@engr.wisc.edu

Instrument Exhibit

Several companies will exhibit rheological instrumentation at the annual meeting.

Poster Session

A poster session will be held in Madison. Abstracts should be submitted using the web-based procedure to the session chair, Professor R.M. Kannan of Wayne State University – rkannan@chem1.eng.wayne.edu


Madison, Wisconsin, situated on an isthmus between Lakes Mendota and Monona, is a truly charming and picturesque city. Four lakes, 200 parks, miles of biking and hiking paths, and one of the loveliest university campuses in the country, offer an abundance of outdoor panoramas and activities. These, combined with a stimulating cultural environment, great shopping and dining, and an "irreverent spirit of fun," make Madison a great place to be.

The Dane County Regional Airport offers service via a number of major airlines. Transportation from the airport is available through hotel shuttles, or city limo and taxi service. An alternative is to fly to O’Hare in Chicago and take the Van Gelder Bus directly from O’Hare airport (International Terminal # 5, lower level, exit 5E) to Madison. The bus runs almost hourly and tickets ($18) can be purchased on board the bus. Additionally, interstate highways I-90 and I-94 intersect at Madison and provide easy access from Chicago, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis.

The annual meeting of The Society of Rheology will be held at the new Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Monona Terrace Convention Center, located two blocks from the State Capitol on the shores of Lake Monona. Originally proposed in 1938, this Convention Center brings to life one of Wright’s final creative visions in a spectacular lakeside setting.

October in Madison is prime time for visitors. In fact, October 15-16, will be the University of Wisconsin Football Homecoming weekend. Early travel and lodging arrangements are advised.

Registration and housing forms, and other information on the Madison meeting will be included in the July Bulletin and is available at this web site.

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Technical Program for Madison

Authors wishing to present a paper in Madison should submit an abstract by May 9, 1999. The preferred medium for submitting the abstract is through the World Wide Web using the SoR abstract submission page at http://www.umche.maine.edu/sor/.

Otherwise, an abstract form may be requested from

Ms. Janis Bennett
c/o American Institute of Physics
500 Sunnyside Boulevard
Woodbury, NY 11797
Tel: (516) 576-2403
Fax: (516) 576-2223

or downloaded from the SoR web site. The completed form should be returned to either of the technical program chairs, with a copy to the appropriate symposium chair. The planned symposia are:

1. Viscoelasticity of Synthethic and Biological Polymer Solutions and Gels
Special Symposium in Honor of John Ferry
    Ralph H. Colby
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
814-863-3457; 814-865-2917 (fax)
E-mail: rhc@plmsc.psu.edu
Donald J. Plazek
Mat. Sci. & Engr. Dept., 848 BEH
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
412-624-7864; 412-624-8069 (fax)
E-mail: plazek@engrng.pitt.edu
Guy C. Berry
Department of Chemistry
Carnegie Mellon University
4400 Fifth Ave.
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
412-268-3131; 412-268-6897 (fax)
E-mail: gcberry@andrew.cmu.edu
2. Rheology of Polymer Melts and Solutions
Examples: experimental methods, associating polymers, polyelectrolytes
John L. Schrag
Department of Chemistry
University of Wisconsin
1101 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53706
608-262-0453 (fax)
E-mail: schrag@chem.wisc.edu
Faith Morrison
Department of Chemical Engineering
Michigan Technological University
1400 Townsend Drive
Houghton, MI 49931-1295
906-487-2050; 906-487-3132 (fax)
E-mail: fmorriso@mtu.edu
3. Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystialline Polymers
Examples: coupling flow and order, phase transitions, structure-property relations
Julie Kornfield
Chemical Engineering 210-41
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125
626-395-4138/4637; 626-568-8743 (fax)
E-mail: jak@cheme.caltech.edu
Jan W. van Egmond
Union Carbide Corporation
P. O. Box 8361
South Charleston, WV 25303
304-344-5008, 304-747-3928 (fax)
E-mail: vanegjw@ucarb.com
Jimmy Jingtao Feng
Levich Institute, Steinman Hall #1M
City College of CUNY
140th Street & Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031-9198
212-650-6844; 212-650-6835 (fax)
E-mail: feng@lisgi1.engr.ccny.cuny.edu
4. Blends and Block Copolymers
Examples: shear-induced structure, novel architectures, phase separation, structure-property relations
Timothy P. Lodge
Department of Chemistry and Department of
Chemical Engineering & Material Science
Institute of Technology
University of Minnesota
235 Smith Hall
207 Pleasant Street S. E.
Minneapolis, MN 55455-0431
612-625-0877; 612-624-1589 (fax)
E-mail: lodge@chem.umn.edu
Paula Moldanaers
Department of Chemical Engineering
K. U. Leuven
de Croylaan 46
B-3001 Leuven-Heverlee
32-16-322359; 32-16-322991 (fax)
E-mail: paula.moldenaers@cit.kuleuven.ac.be
5. Rheology of Solids
Examples: constitutive equations, composites, aging, structure-property relations
Alan Wineman
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and
Applied Mathematics
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
734-936-0411; 734-764-4256 (fax)
E-mail: lardan@engin.umich.edu
Roderic S. Lakes
Deparment of Engineering Physics
University of Wisconsin
1500 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706
608-265-8697; 608-263-7451 (fax)
E-mail: lakes@engr.wisc.edu
6. Shear-free Flows
Examples: elongational and extensional flows, experimental methods
John Wiest
Chemical Engineering Department
Box 870203
University of Alabama
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487
205-348-1727; 205-348-7558 (fax)
E-mail: jwiest@coe.eng.ua.edu
Kurt W. Koelling
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
The Ohio State University
140 W. 19th Ave.
Columbus, OH 43210-1180
614-292-2256; 614-292-9271 (fax)
E-mail: koelling.1@osu.edu
David James
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineeering
University of Toronto
Toronto, Canada M5S 3G8
416-978-3049; 416-978-7753 (fax)
E-mail: david.james@utoronto.ca
7. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics
Examples: experimental, analytical, and numerical studies of complex flows, connections with molecular or microstructural models, stability, flow transitions
Michael D. Graham
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Wisconsin
1415 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706
608-265-3780; 608-262-5434 (fax)
E-mail: graham@engr.wisc.edu
Radhakrishna Sureshkumar
Campus Box 1198
Department of Chemical Engineering
Washington University
St. Louis, MO 63130
314-935-4988; 314-935-7211 (fax)
E-mail: suresh@poly1.wustl.edu
Lars Genieser
Union Carbide Corporation
P. O. Box 670
Bldg. 98, Room 480
Bound Brook, NJ 08805-0670
732-563-5627; 732-563-5603 (fax)
E-mail: lhgenies@bellatlantic.net
8. Heterogeneous Systems
Examples: suspensions, colloidal dispersions, emulsions, electro- and magnetorheological fluids
Daniel De Kee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Tulane University
New Orleans, LA 70118-5674
504-865-5620; 504-865-6744 (fax)
E-mail: ddekee@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu
Lisa Mondy
Energetic and Multiphase Processes Department
Sandia National Laboratories
Albuquerque, NM 87185-0834
505-844-1755; 505-844-8251 (fax)
E-mail: lamondy@sandia.gov
Mike Solomon
Department of Chemical Engineering
Univeristy of Michigan - Ann Arbor
3142 H. H. Dow Bldg., 2300 Hayward St.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136
734-764-3119; 734-763-0459 (fax)
E-mail: mjsolo@umich.edu
9. Industrial Rheology
Examples: fiber and film processing, instabilities in polymer processing, rheology of commercial fluids (e.g., cosmetics, paints, coating fluids), extrusion, injection molding and mixing
Chris E. Scott
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MIT Room 13-5013
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02139
617-258-6133; 617-253-6896 (fax)
E-mail: cscott@mit.edu
Roger A. Ross
DuPont Nylon
Fiber Engineering Technology Center
4501 N. Access Rd.
Chattanooga, TN 37415-3899
432-875-7780; 432-875-7551 (fax)
E-mail: roger.a.ross@usa.dupont.com
William H. Tuminello
The DuPont Company
The Experimental Station
P. O. Box 80536
Wilmington, DE 19980-0356
302-695-7330; 302-695-8120 (fax)
E-mail: william.h.tuminello@usa.dupont.com
10. General Session
Dave S. Malkus
Department of Engineering Physics
(EMA Program)
University of Wisconsin
1500 Engineering Drive
Madison, WI 53706
608-262-4515; 608-263-7451 (fax)
E-mail: malkus@cms.wisc.edu
Donald G. Baird
Department of Chemical Engineering
Virginia Tech
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0211
540-231-5998; 540-231-2732 (fax)
E-mail: dbaird@vt.edu

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1998 Journal of Rheology Publication Award

The winners of the 1998 Journal of Rheology Publication Award are Michael J. MacDonald and Susan J. Muller for "Experimental study of shear-induced migration of polymers in dilute solution," Journal of Rheology, 40, 259-283 (1996).

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Student-Member Travel Grants for Madison

The Society of Rheology is again offering grants to support the cost of public transportation to the annual meeting of the Society to graduate student members of the Society. Details concerning eligibility, application procedure and application deadline may be found on the web page of the Society or by contacting Professor Don Baird of the Department of Chemical Engineering at Virginia Tech. He may be reached by phone at (540) 231-5998 or by e-mail at dbaird@vt.edu.

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Nominations Invited

Nominations are invited for the different Executive Committee positions of the Society for the 1999-2001 term. Please contact any member of the Nominating Committee, which consists of:

Robert C. Armstrong, chair
Department of Chemical Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA 02139
(617) 253-4581; Fax: (617) 258-8992
John F. Brady
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125
(626) 395-4183; Fax: (626) 568-8743
Robert Secor
3M Engineering Systems and Technology
3M Center, Building 518-1-01
St. Paul, MN 55144
(612) 733-0864; Fax: (612) 736-3122

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Yield Stress in Orbitz

P. Dontula and C. W. Macosko
Coating Process Fundamentals Program
Center for Interfacial Engineering and
Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455

(See erratum of this paper.)

At the 22nd annual short course on rheological measurements at the University of Minnesota in August 1997, two enthusiastic participants presented the instructors with an interesting problem: how do gel-like particles, some as large as 5 mm in diameter, remain suspended in the commercially available Orbitz™ drink? The results of a few rheological measurements reported here serve as a useful pedagogical tool. We have in fact used the ideas presented here as a home exercise in one of our courses, titled Principles and Applications of Rheology. We have also learned that Professor Larson has used this sample at the University of Michigan as a teaching example.

Figure 1
Figure 1. The commercially
available Orbitz™.

The overall appearance of Orbitz™ (Figure 1, Clearly Canadian Beverage Corp., Vancouver, Canada) is striking: the suspension is stable to violent agitation, but millimeter-size air bubbles entrained during agitation rise to the surface within seconds; a small angular displacement imparted to the liquid in the container moves the particles, but they recoil and even overshoot their initial positions and execute damped oscillations; and yet, the liquid appears to have the consistency of water. In the absence of other effects, large particles such as these will remain suspended only if the densities of the liquid and the particles are identical. All of these features suggest a complex rheological behavior and an excellent example for analysis.

Rheological properties of the supernatant liquid in Orbitz™ were measured at 20 C with a controlled-strain rheometer (RFS-II) and a controlled-stress rheometer (SR-2000), both manufactured by Rheometric Scientific, Piscataway, NJ. Concentric cylinders, or Couette, fixtures (32 mm inner cylinder diameter, 1 mm radial gap and 33 mm length in the RFS-II, and 29.5 mm inner cylinder diameter, 1.25 mm radial gap and 44.25 mm length in the SR-2000) maximized the torque signal. Water-soaked foam-lined covers minimized water loss by evaporation. The linear viscoelastic strain limit of the liquid determined by small amplitude oscillatory measurements (at 1 s-1) was between 15% and 20%. Repeat measurements without any delay between experiments resulted in lower observed values of the elastic modulus, but those after a 5 min delay showed that the modulus had completely recovered to its original value, indicating a strain-sensitive structure in the liquid. Oscillatory measurements performed with and without pre-shearing the liquid are compared in Figure 2a. The frequency was stepped down from 100 s-1 to 0.1 s-1 in both experiments, and a 10% strain was imposed. Liquid inertia limited the highest frequency at which phase angles were accurately determined to about 30 s-1. The elastic modulus G' falls with frequency, and plateaus at about 0.13 Pa. The values of G' after pre-shearing were consistently smaller than without pre-shearing, and rose with frequency below 1 s-1. Because frequency sweeps take a few minutes to complete and impose small strain, the disrupted structure in the liquid may recover during the experiment. This is demonstrated in Figure 2b which traces the rise in G' with time after pre-shearing. The elastic modulus rose to about 90% of the value in Figure 2a in 7 min after shearing was stopped.

Figure 2a
Figure 2b
Figure 2. Elastic and viscous moduli of the supernatant liquid. (a) Versus frequency, with and without pre-shearing. (b) Versus time, after pre-shearing. The frequency was 1 s-1, and the strain imposed was 10%.

Shear viscosity of the supernatant liquid was measured by two different experiments: "instantaneous" step-rate experiments, in which the velocity of the rotating cylinder was quickly raised to its programmed value on the controlled-strain rheometer, and creep experiments on the controlled-stress rheometer. Viscosity falls sharply with rising shear rate, and values from both experiments show reasonable agreement (Figure 3a). The shear viscosity is only four times that of water at 100 s-1, explaining the fluidity of the sample at first sight. Viscosity replotted versus shear stress (Figure 3b) shows a sharp drop at a stress between 0.03 and 0.04 Pa. There are two critical stress levels, one around 0.04 Pa and the other around 0.075 Pa, in the measurements taken with the controlled-strain rheometer. This may be because stress in the liquid immediately adjacent to the moving member in the controlled-strain rheometer rises sharply at start-up and then falls to the measured value as the velocity profile develops. If the stress exceeds the yield stress, the liquid adjacent to the moving wall will yield. Then, the steady-state velocity profile and the time to attain it will depend on the shear rate and the rate of formation of the structure in the liquid, and may be quite complex. In contrast, during the creep experiment, the stress in the liquid never exceeds the programmed stress. Hence, the yield stress is more accurately determined by creep experiments. The yield stress t of 0.04 Pa obtained in creep measurements compares favorably with 0.045 Pa obtained from oscillatory experiments in which the strain was raised in steps from 0.1% to 100% at a frequency of 5 s-1. The yield stress is sometimes estimated as G*g, where G* is the complex modulus at the linear viscoelastic strain limit g. The yield stress t of 0.04 Pa is roughly twice that used to suspend insoluble "builder" particles in liquid detergents (Barnes, 1980).

Figure 3a
Figure 3b
Figure 3. Shear viscosity of the supernatant liquid in Orbitz™ versus (a) shear rate, and the same data replotted versus (b) shear stress. Couette fixtures were used in both the rheometers. When the inner cylinder rotates and the shear rates exceed 500 s-1, the critical Taylor number for the onset of vortices in the annular gap is exceeded; the ensuing secondary flow may raise the apparent viscosity.

A balance between the buoyant (or gravitational) force, 4 Dr p R3/3, and the restoring force due to the yield stress in the liquid, t p R2, provides an estimate of the minimum (or maximum) density of a spherical particle of radius R that will remain motionless in the liquid. Here, Dr is the absolute value of the difference in densities of the liquid and the particles. With particles of 5 mm in diameter, the maximum density difference that can be supported by the Orbitz™ liquid is about 12 kg/m3. This is easily attained in practice if the particles are swollen in solution, as is the case with Orbitz™. Air bubbles smaller than about 60 mm in diameter can be expected to remain stationary in Orbitz™.


The authors thank Susan C. Forman, Hercules Inc., and Alan Graham, Los Alamos National Laboratories, for bringing Orbitz™ to their attention. P. Dontula was supported by industrial and National Science Foundation funds through the Center for Interfacial Engineering at the University of Minnesota.


Barnes, H.A., "Detergents," in Rheometry: Industrial Applications, edited by K. Walters (Wiley, Chichester, U.K., 1980).

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Rheology Bulletin Author Guidelines

The Rheology Bulletin publishes papers on the applied aspects of Rheology which are intended for the non-specialist. Appropriate topics include the application of rheological principles to a specific system, instrumentation for rheological measurements, description of interesting rheological phenomena, and the use of well-established rheological techniques to characterize products, processes or phenomena. Papers describing historical aspects of the practice of rheology and how these have influenced current trends are welcome. Also welcome are papers that address the present and changing status of rheological education. Consultation with the Editor prior to manuscript submission is encouraged.

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Book Review

James A. Liggett and David A. Caughey
CD-ROM (1998); ISBN 0-7844-0310-4
$100/$75 Students and ASCE Members
ASCE Press, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191
Tel: (800) 548-2723

Fluid Mechanics: An Interactive Text integrates a multimedia presentation with the computational capabilities of MATLAB (The MathWorks) to provide an introduction for undergraduates. This software was developed with Authorware (Macromedia) and runs on PC (486/50 MHz, Windows 3.1, 95, NT) and Macintosh (68030 or PowerPC, System 7.5 or later) computers with minimal system requirements (4X CD-ROM, 16 MB RAM, 30 MB disk space, 640480 screen resolution, 256 colors). The CD-ROM must be in the drive for the program to start. A table of contents was not provided with the enclosed documentation, so a listing is provided below.

Preface and Users Guide, Introduction, Basic Considerations, Fluid Statics, Integral Description, Dimensional Analysis and Similitude, Laminar and Turbulent Flows, Incompressible Pipe Flow, Potential Flow, Boundary Layers, Flow Past Bodies, Compressible Flows, Open Channel Flows, Fluid Machinery, Transport.

These chapters are typically divided into small sections which fit the presentation method and possibly the attention span of the intended audience. These sections provide a good overview of most subjects covered in a typical undergraduate course on fluid mechanics. The reader can set the presentation "Level" starting with an overview (Level 1), then adding quantitative information (Level 2) and finally specialized information (Level 3).

One advantage of an interactive text is rapid navigation of the material. Chapters are selected from the Table of Contents or using numbers at the bottom of the screen. Each chapter is loaded from the CD-ROM as requested by the user. However, this process is slow, inhibiting a reader’s ability to browse the text. A "word search" feature only works within the current chapter. A slide bar at the bottom of the screen and "Next", "Previous" and "Back" buttons provide navigation within a chapter. A "history list" provides access to any of the last 50 pages viewed by the reader. Screens can also be located using a "bookmark". Text in bold or colored font is linked to other screens including figures, graphs, equations and the glossary. This navigational feature is especially effective with equations, allowing a reader to view the referenced equation alone or in the context of a screen on which it appears. The "Table of Figures" and "Glossary Index" are also useful for jumping to a particular illustration of concept in the text. A "Figure Search" utility allows the reader to find animations, applications, figures, graphs, movies, photographs and tables using a text description.

Other advantages of an interactive text include annotation, visualization and computation capabilities. The reader can add "Notes" to a screen; the notes can be collected and saved as a text file for any chapter. The text also contains "Footnotes" inserted by the authors to expand on sentences marked by an asterisk in the text. Material cannot be copied from the text, but screens can be printed in landscape mode. Figures are displayed in "thumbnail" size but can be expanded by clicking on a "magnifying glass" icon. Some graphs and tables are directly accessible using the "Data" menu at the top of the screen. Animations and videos are launched using a "filmstrip" icon and controlled with arrow buttons at the bottom of the resulting frame. MATLAB enables a reader to interact with some graphs, tables and equations. This software is also used in a number of computational tools, which are launched using the "Tools" menu at the top of the screen. Descriptions of these tools are listed below:

  • Active Equation: plots equations
  • AreaFlow: solves the equations of isentropic flow for a calorically perfect gas
  • AxialVel: plots velocity diagrams for axial flow machines
  • BIEMer: solves internal potential and ground wter flows using boundary integral method
  • DiAna: determines dimensionless groups using a worksheet
  • EPANET: calculates flow and pressure in pipe networks (PC)
  • Fanno: obtains the flow of calorically perfect gas in a constant area duct with friction
  • Integrat: evaluates integrals
  • PipeFlow: obtains pipe flow with friction
  • Plotter: displays x-y and contour plots
  • PotFlow: displays planar and axisymmetric potential flows
  • Prandtl-Meyer Function: provides flow turning angle as a function of Mach number
  • Rayleigh: obtains flow of a calorically perfect gas in constant area ducts with heat addition
  • SlveTran: solves systems of nonlinear and/or transcendental equations
  • StdAtmos: displays equations and tables for a standard atmosphere to 90,000 m altitude
  • Units: converts values for dimensional quantities
  • WatrHamr: predicts water hammer in elastic pipes

These programs are documented in appendices at the end of some chapters. Additional documentation is available from the "Help" menu at the top of the screen.

Fluid Mechanics: An Interactive Text is a good overview of the subject for undergraduate students. The presentation implements useful navigational features with computational tools. I recommend purchase as a supplement to laboratory and lecture courses involving fluid mechanics.

W.E. VanArsdale
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77204

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Change of Address

If you are moving, please inform: Janis Bennett (516) 576-2403, Fax: (516) 576-2223, or Carolyn Gehlbach (516) 576- 2404 at

c/o American Institute of Physics
500 Sunnyside Boulevard
Woodbury, NY 11797

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Updated 14 February 2010