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Rheology Bulletin

Vol. 72, No. 2 (July 2003)

Rakesh Gupta, Editor

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Executive Committee - 2001-2003

President William B. Russel
Vice President Susan J. Muller
Secretary A. Jeffrey Giacomin
Treasurer Montgomery T. Shaw
Editor Morton M. Denn
Past President Gerald G. Fuller
Members-at-Large Donald G. Baird
Lisa A. Mondy

Robert L. Powell

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Faith Morrison, chair
P. T. Mather
N. J. Wagner, chair
R. J. Butera
A. Chow
J. Vermant
Meetings Policy
S. J. Muller, chair
G. G. Fuller
A. J. Giacomin
A. M. Kraynik
R. G. Larson
R. L. Powell
Bingham Award
W. R.  Burghardt, chair
A. N.  Beris
J. Byars
D. J. Klingerberg
G. Leal
W. Tuminello
K. F. Wissbrun
R. H. Colby, chair
G. C. Berry
P. Moldenaers

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Giuseppe Marrucci
2003 Bingham Medalist

The Bingham medal of the Society for 2003 will be awarded at the Pittsburgh meeting to Professor Pino Marrucci of the University of Naples, Italy; a write-up appears inside this issue of the Bulletin.

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75th Annual Meeting
Pittsburgh, PA
October 12 – 16, 2003

The 75th Annual Meeting of the Society of Rheology will be held at the Sheraton Station Square Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. The hotel is located opposite the confluence of the Ohio, Allegheny and Monongahela rivers and the central "Golden Triangle" of Pittsburgh.

As usual, the Meeting will begin with a reception in the Hotel on Sunday evening, with presentation of the Bingham Award at a dinner on Tuesday. The Technical Program will include sessions on Biorheology, Entangled polymers and analytical rheology, Suspensions and multiphase fluids, Liquid crystalline polymers, self-assembling fluids, and nanomaterials, Viscoelastic flows and instabilities, and the Rheology of solids and near-solids. Registration and housing forms may be found on the web site of the Society at www.rheology.org, while attractions in the Pittsburgh area, many easily reached from the hotel, may be found on the web site at www.Pittsburgh.net.

 The meeting organizers are:

Technical Program:
           Ronald Larson
(734) 936-0772; Fax: (734) 763-0459
e-mail: rlarson@umich.edu
Local Arrangements:
  Guy C. Berry
(412) 268-3131; Fax: (412) 268-6897
e-mail: gcberry@andrew.cmu.edu
  Rakesh K. Gupta
(304) 293-2111 ext 2427; Fax: (304) 293-4139
e-mail: rakesh.gupta@mail.wvu.edu
  Lynn Walker
(412) 268-3020; Fax: (412) 268-7139
e-mail: lwalker@andrew.cmu.edu

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2003 Bingham Medal Goes To Giuseppe Marrucci

Prof. Giuseppe (Pino) MarrucciGiuseppe (Pino) Marrucci has been selected as the 2003 Bingham Medalist. This choice is completely unsurprising, given the extraordinary breadth and depth of Pino’s contributions to the science of rheology. The choice will also delight the community of rheologists, whom Pino has served in so many ways over his very distinguished career at the University of Naples.

The scope of Pino Marrucci’s contributions to rheology can perhaps best be appreciated when one recognizes that his contributions in each of several areas would qualify him as one of the world’s most eminent rheologists.

Entangled Polymers Since the introduction of the seminal Doi-Edwards theory in 1978, the two most important advances to this theory for the rheology of flexible-chain polymers have been due to Marrucci and coworkers. The first advance, in the early 1980’s was the addition of “chain stretch” to the basic equations. Chain stretch permits overshoots in normal stresses to be predicted. This improvement did not, however, cure the most severe, and well-known, deficiency of the famous Doi-Edwards theory, which predicts too much shear thinning. Recently, however, Marrucci introduced the concept of “convective constraint release” (CCR), which repairs this final, major, problem in tube models for fast flows of linear polymers. Marrucci’s “convective constraint release” concept has led to a flurry of activity and has rejuvenated this field. Apart from the original development of the Doi-Edwards equation, this contribution is probably the most important idea in the entire field of constitutive equations for melts of flexible polymers.

Marrucci has made numerous other contributions to our understanding of the rheology of entangled melts. These include his invention of the concept of “dynamic dilution” in the early 1980’s, which was applied to star polymers by Ball and McLeish in 1989. This, along with primitive path fluctuations (introduced by de Gennes), is the key concept required to understand the rheology of branched polymers. Another very recent contribution is the idea of a “local force balance” between entangled polymer molecules; this concept seems to be the key to performing some dynamic simulations of entanglement networks, and may be responsible for controlling the magnitude of the second normal stress difference.

Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers In 1989, Marrucci and Maffetone explained the cause of the mysterious negative first normal stress difference in shearing flows of nematic polymers. The explanation involved director tumbling, by which shearing flows actually cause the molecules to be less aligned than in the absence of shear, producing a reactive force that is the opposite of the usual, giving rise to negative N1. This solution required a deep understanding of the dynamics of liquid crystalline polymers, and combined with their numerical solution to the Smoluchowski equations for the distribution function for liquid crystal orientations, produced a convincing prediction and explanation of negative N1. This work was probably the single most important discovery in the theoretical study of liquid crystalline polymers, and it led to many further developments in this field involving the concept of director tumbling.

In the early 1990’s, Marrucci and Greco developed a theory for the structure of a defect core that can be applied to flowing liquid crystals. When combined with the “Doi theory” for nematic polymers, this theory allowed the development of numerical solutions for the director field in flowing liquid crystals, and it has been widely used for that purpose. Marrucci made many other contributions to liquid crystal flow, including the widely-cited “Marrucci scaling law” for the density of disclinations as a function of shear rate, estimates of the magnitudes of viscous stresses in flowing liquid crystalline polymers, a “nematic dumbbell” model that explains why nematics with flexible spacers do not show director tumbling, and a theory for the effect of polydispersity on the rheology of concentrated rod-like polymers.

Constitutive Equations and non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics In addition to the above-cited contributions to the molecular physics of rheology, Marrucci has never lost sight of the importance of rheology as an engineering discipline. Marrucci has produced numerous simplified constitutive equations, useful for calculating the stresses in complex flows. These equations include a simplified differential version of the Doi-Edwards equation, equations that improve the normal-stress predictions of that equation, equations for liquid-crystalline polymers, associating polymers, and others. Not to be ignored are Marrucci’s collaborations with Mort Denn, which include analyses of filament breakup and of the rheology of suspensions. In the 1970’s, Astarita and Marrucci contributed a wonderful book on rheology, perhaps the most lucid work on the subject available at the time.

Dilute Polymer Solutions In a 1970’s paper, much in advance of its time, Marrucci and coworkers used molecular simulations to discover the importance of folded conformations in the extensional flow of dilute polymer solutions. The simulations were rather primitive compared to those now possible, but Marrucci must be acknowledged as the first to observe these conformations, whose significance only became apparent as a result of the DNA imaging work of Steve Chu and coworkers. Also early in his career, Marrucci contributed an expression for the free energy of a deformed polymer chain that has since become a mainstay of polymer thermodynamic analyses.

Service to the Rheological Communitiy Pino’s service to our community extends well beyond his scientific contributions. He has regularly hosted or co-hosted rheology meetings, including three delightful meetings on the island of Capri near his beloved Naples University and the International Congress on Rheology in Naples. Pino is a wonderfully clear communicator and a spirited participant in our beloved international community of rheologists. His contributions are always marked by a rare combination of intelligence and grace. Pino is a mainstay of our discipline.

Ron Larson

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Holmes Responds to President Russel

"Well Watson! What is it this time? Another 100 points off the stock market?" exclaimed my friend seating himself beside the single ring of the gas fire that economy had forced upon me. Why is it that the fellow is always so confounded cheerful when the news is so bad?

"Nothing so trivial," I assured him. "It seems as though my subscription to the Journal is set to rise to $500 a year - the same as libraries have to pay. Of course I can see the ethical justice - why should public bodies be expected to subsidise private citizens. But this seeming triumph for democracy will undoubtedly sever the last links that I have with my scientific past. The Journal may well be worth $500 a year - but that is twice what we spend on the malt whisky that you insist on researching to discover the 'key to eternal life'. In short Holmes, we are doomed!"

The great detective solemly perused the tear-stained copy of Rheology Bulletin 72 (1) that I handed him. His face grew increasingly serious. Finally he laid the "Report of the President" aside, lit his pipe with a spill from the fire - in such circumstances I could forgive the lapse from grace - and declared: "There is one solution. The Editor must cut his costs. For a start, he should cease the overgenerous payments that he is undoubtedly disbursing for articles and reviews."

"Alas, Holmes," I countered. "No such savings can be made - the Editor makes no such payments."

"It is as I thought," observed Holmes switching on a second bar and driving off the winter chill that was beginning to seize my weary bones. "There is no need for this economy! But first tell me - would the libraries want to purchase the Journal if there were no articles and they were not properly reviewed?"

The vigorous shaking of my head must have been all the answer he needed for he continued: "And who are the people who give freely of their time to prepare contributions and reviews to ensure the quality and value of the Journal?"

"Why Holmes, overwhelmingly they are members of the Society." Slowly the light dawned. "Obviously, the Society only elects to membership those whom it expects to contribute to its meetings, publications and other activities and there is no ethical compromise in their receiving the Journal at highly advantageous rates - or indeed FREE!"

(The above exchange was related to the Editor by Dr. F. N. Cogswell).

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Candidates for Society Office

The three-member Nominating Committee, consisting of Guy Berry, Ralph Colby (chair) and Paula Moldenaers, has prepared the following list of candidates:

President Susan J. Muller
Vice President L. Gary Leal
  Robert K. Prud’homme
Secretary A. Jeffrey Giacomin
Treasurer Montgomery T. Shaw
Editor Morton M. Denn
Member-at-Large Wesley R. Burghardt
  Robert J. Butera
  Nino Grizzuti
  Timothy P. Lodge
  Lynn M. Walker

Voting will be done by electronic ballots at www.rheology.org/sorvote/. This web site will be turned on about July 25, 2003.

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Editor Bids Adieu!

Rakesh Gupta, Editor of Rheology Bulletin since 1995, is stepping down to pursue other adventures. The next issue of the Bulletin, and subsequent issues, will be edited by Dr. Faith Morrison of Michigan Technological University. She may be reached via e-mail at fmorriso@mtu.edu.

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Meeting Information

The Society of Rheology 75th Annual Meeting with Short Course
October 12-16, 2003, The Sheraton Station Square Hotel, Pittsburgh, PA

For more information: Detailed information about the meeting, lodging, registration, and travel can be found on the Society of Rheology website at http://www.rheology.org/sor/ under the heading Meeting Announcements. The website should also be consulted to submit abstracts, and, at a later date review the technical program for the meeting, as well as for registration forms and up-to-date information on the meeting arrangements.

Registration: The registration fee includes access to all technical sessions and the vendor display, the program and abstract booklets, two receptions, coffee breaks, and refreshments at the poster session. The registration fee does not include the Bingham Award Banquet. The fee for the banquet is $55. Registration instructions, forms and fees appear on the Society website.

Location: Technical sessions and the short course will be held at the Sheraton Station Square Hotel, a modern full-service hotel located in Station Square, opposite the confluence of the Ohio, Allegheny and Monogohaila Rivers and the central "Golden Triangle" of Pittsburgh. A variety of restaurants and shops may be found in the Golden Triangle and the Station Square complex. For on-line information about Station Square area, go to http://www.stationsquare.com. For on-line information about the city of Pittsburgh and environs, including sites of interest, accommodations, transportation, etc., click go to http://www.pittsburgh.net/. For on-line information about the many activities in Pittsburgh, including a calendar of events, and info on sight seeing and entertainment attractions, go to http://www.carnegielibrary.org/subject/pgh/.

Technical Program: Details on the Technical Program arranged by Professor Ronald Larson and the Session Chairs may be found on the Society of Rheology website. In addition to the Bingham Award Lecture by Professor Marrucci, Professors Bob Bird and Art Metzner are scheduled to present plenary lectures, each of which will have an historical theme, in celebration of the 75th anniversary of the Society of Rheology. Symposia topics are: Biorheology, Entangled Polymers and Analytical Rheology, Extensional Rheology, Suspensions and Multiphase Fluids, Liquid Crystalline Polymers and Self-Assembling Fluids, Viscoelastic Flows and Instabilities, Rheology of Solids and Near-Solids, and Microrheology, Microfluidics, and MEMS. There will be a poster session on Wednesday evening in the Sheraton Station Square Hotel.

Short Course: A short course on Rheology and Micro-rheological Measurements of Associating Complex Fluids will be taught by Professors Robert Prud’homme, William Russel and James Harden on October 11-12, 2003.

Social Program: A welcoming reception will be held Sunday evening in the Hotel Station Square. The Hotel Station Square will also be the venue for the General Business Meeting as well as the reception and Banquet associated with the Bingham Award, and a reception in tandem with the Poster Session.

Exhibits: Instrument vendors will display products in the rooms used for daily refreshments and the Poster Session.

Accommodations: Rooms are reserved at Sheraton Hotel Station Square at a conference-price, on a first-come, first-served basis for a conference rate. For information contact: Sheraton the Hotel Station Square, 7 Station Square Dr., Pittsburgh PA 15219, 412-261-2000, Fax:412-261-2932. Please mention the Society of Rheology meeting to obtain the conference rate at the Sheraton Hotel. Hotel reservations should be made directly by the participants, and neither the arrangements nor the cost is the responsibility of the Society of Rheology. Additional hotel space may be found in nearby downtown Pittsburgh over a range of accommodation style and price. For information on the hotels listed in the on-line information on Pittsburgh, visit: http://www.pittsburgh.net/visitor_information.cfm.

Transportation: Pittsburgh is served by the Pittsburgh International Airport, which offers direct flights to most major locations in the USA and Canada, as well as direct flights to several locations in Europe. The conference site at Station Square (about 15 miles from the Airport) may be reached by direct limousine service from the airport operating hourly, by limousine service to downtown Pittsburgh operating more frequently, coupled with a short taxi ride to Station Square, or by taxi from the airport. Visit the travel information booth near baggage claim at the Pittsburgh International Airport.

Driving Instructions: From Airport: Follow airport signs to Pittsburgh. Exit the Parkway at EXIT 7B, West End By-Pass, to arrive on Carson Street. Station Square will be on the left after a short distance. From I-79: Follow the signs to Pittsburgh Exit Eastbound, and then follow the preceding directions. From I-376 Westbound: Follow the signs to Pittsburgh via Exit 6, Monroeville, to I-376 Westbound. Exit at Grant Street, immediate left at traffic signal, one block to left on Smithfield Bridge to Station Square.

For additional information on the local arrangements, please consult the website of the Society of Rheology, or if the information you seek is not found there, contact G.C. Berry, e-mail: gcberry@andrew.cmu.edu.

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Future Meetings of the Society

76th Annual Meeting
Lubbock, Texas
February 13-17, 2005

77th Annual Meeting
Vancouver, BC, Canada
October 16-20, 2005

78th Annual Meeting
Portland, Maine
October 8-12, 2006

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Short Course at Pittsburgh

A two-day short course on Rheology and Micro-rheological Measurements of Associating Complex Fluids will be offered in Pittsburgh, October 11-12, 2003. The instructors are Professors Robert Prud’homme and William Russel of Princeton University and Professor James Harden of Johns Hopkins University. Registration forms and complete registration information may be found at the Society of Rheology website at http://www.rheology.org/sor.

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Change of Address

If you are moving, please inform Janis Bennett by phone at (516) 576-2403 or by fax at (516) 576-2223. You may also write to her at:

c/o American Institute of Physics
Suite 1NO1
2 Huntington Quadrangle
Melville, NY 11747

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TA Instruments Finalizes Purchase of the Rheology Division of Rheometric Scientific

TA Instruments, Inc. of New Castle, DE has completed its purchase of the assets of the Rheology Division of Rheometric Scientific, Inc. of Piscataway, NJ. The sales, service, and support operations of both companies are currently being consolidated into a single worldwide organization. The Piscataway facility will ultimately close with all engineering and manufacturing staff relocating to New Castle, DE. The name of the combined company will remain TA Instruments.

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Updated 14 February 2010